Gingiva and Fixated Gums in Dentistry
The gums are composed of fixated and loose parts.
The gum is tightly attached to the teeth, it is pale pink and you can see a pattern, these are indications of healthy gums. Additionally, as soon as you move the gum upwards on the teeth, the pattern disappears. This area is the loose part of the gums. This area can be moved with a probe; the lower part, known as the gingiva fixa, cannot be moved.
The relevance of fixated gums (gingiva fixa) was controversial for a long time. Earlier, it was assumed that the gingiva fixa protected the teeth against mechanical strain caused by chewing motions. Inadequate gingiva fixa height was believed to promote gum recession. Through animal testing and long-term studies, it was shown that the presence – or lack thereof – of fixated gingiva has no relevant influence on the development of periodontal diseases. However, if the gingiva fixa is missing it causes increased plaque agglomeration.
If only a little bit of the gingiva fixa is left and an implant is planned, the punching method should not be used because this would completely remove the remainder of the fixated gums.
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